The struggle against fascism begins with the struggle against Bolshevism - Otto Ruhle

Left communist pamphlet from 1939 that points the finger at Lenin and the Bolsheviks for crippling the international workers' movement with authoritarian tactics and for developing a totalitarian and capitalist system of rule in the USSR.

Empire - Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt

Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt argue that globalisation is transforming individual nation states into a system of diffuse national and global institutions of power - in other words a new type of Empire - which raises the possibility for a "multitude" of people to fight it.

Philosophy of right - GWF Hegel

Hegel's key book outlining his social and philosophical ideas, written in 1820 and translated into English by S.W Dyde.

Workers' councils - Anton Pannekoek

Anton Pannekoek's seminal texts describing how workers' councils have been and can be organs of self-organised working class power in struggle - and a means towards overthrowing capitalism and creating a classless society.

Revolt of the scientists - Pannekoek

Pannekoek considers the possibility of resistance to the threat of Cold War annihilation in the then-dawning "Atomic Age".

(From "RETORT", Vol. 4, # 2, Spring 1948)

Party and working class - Anton Pannekoek

German Communist Party election poster, 1924.

Pannekoek hammers at the idea that party and class must be antagonistic, as the history of German and Russian parties had shown by 1936. Rather, the working class must self-actuate and self-organize: "Practical action, that is, concrete class struggle, is a matter for the masses themselves, acting as a whole, within their natural groups, notably the work gangs, which constitute the units of effective combat."

General Remarks on the Question of Organisation (1938)

Young Marx, Engels and others in conspiratorial mode.

"There are many who think of the proletarian revolution in terms of the former revolutions of the middle class, as a series of consecutive phases: first, conquest of government and instalment of a new government, then expropriation of the capitalist class by law, and then a new organisation of the process of production. But such events could lead only to some kind of state capitalism. As the proletariat rises to dominance it develops simultaneously its own organisation and the forms of the new economic order."

Lenin as philosopher - Anton Pannekoek

Lenin As Philosopher - Anton Pannekoek.

Pannekoek's classic work analyses Lenin's philosophical views as being determined by the historical circumstances they emerged from; the battle against religious dominance in 19th century Russia. This made Lenin's simplistic materialism quite different from Marx's. Pannekoek illustrates that dualistic conceptions of a vanguard party as a 'consciousness' leading the working class 'body' are rooted in the philosophical underpinnings of Lenin's bourgeois materialism.